Modulations: Electronic Timeline


Luigi Russolo “Art of Noises”- use of industrial noises and rhythms

First manageable electronic instruments appear: Theremin, Ondes Martenot Trautonium

John Cage Imaginary landscape #1 first composed piece to use means of electronic reproduction

Pierre Henry and Pierre Schaeffer compose ‘Symphonie Pour Un Homme Seul’ – first piece of musique concrete

John Cage: Imaginary Landscape #4 first piece to use radios as instruments

Karlheinz Stockhausen ‘Gesang der Junglinge’ uses both natural sounds and electronically generated noises

First moog sythesizer hits the market

Stockhausen Telemusik uses shortwave radio as instruments to create a “world music”

Early 70’s
Miles Davis electric records are influenced by Telemusik. Producer Teo Macero edits these recordings in studio

Throbbing Gristle make a horrible racket and call it industrial music

Hip-hop DJs in New York use the spinback capabilities of the Technics 1200s turntable to create scratching and extend grooves by cutting back and forth between 2 copies of the same record

Giorgio Moroder Chicory Tip’s version of “Son Of My Father” is first song featuring a Moog to make pop charts

Mid 70’s
Brian Eno coins the term ambient and releases his album “Another Green World”

Moroder’s production of Donna Summer’s “I Feel Love” becomes a disco classic

Kraftwerk releases “Trans-Europe Express”

Roland introduces the TB-303 bassline machine and the TR-808 drum machine

Afrika Bambaata’s “Planet Rock” samples Kraftwerk and creates electro

Mid 80’s
First affordable samplers hit the market which enable musicians to capture and manipulate existing sounds. Ensoniq Mirage + Akai S900

TG’s Genesis Porridge claims that he brought house music to England. However it happened, the music starts a youth culture revolution in UK

Mid 80’s
Musicians in Chicago misuse the Roland TB303 and create Acid House

Mid 80’s
Detroit musicians create Techno

Late 80’s
Ambient is reborn as chill out music for tired clubbers

Trip Hop/ Downtempo



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These images show a series of collaborative portraits, featuring embroidery by women unable to leave their homes in India due to their husbands or fathers, some of whom are domestic abuse survivors. The works are from a project called “Nā́rī” by Indian artist Spandita Malik, a finalist for the Inge Morath Award from the Magnum Foundation. Malik’s practice involves expanded documentary with the idea of decolonizing the aesthetic surrounding documentary photography in India.Our sister foundation, the Cultures of Resistance Network, has been proud to support the Magnum Foundation in the past, including their efforts to amplify socially-conscious photographers from the Global South. The Magnum Foundation’s Inge Morath Award is a grant made each year to a woman or nonbinary photographer under the age of 30 to support the completion of a long-term documentary project. ... See MoreSee Less
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